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1.4 The Aortic Reservoir-Wave as a Paradigm for Arterial Hemodynamics: Insights From 3D Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulations in a Model of Aortic Coarctation

Abstract

The reservoir-wave paradigm considers aortic pressure as the superposition of a “reservoir pressure”, directly related to changes in reservoir volume, and an “excess pressure” ascribed to wave dynamics. The change in reservoir pressure is assumed to be proportional to the difference between aortic inflow and outflow (i.e. aortic volume changes), an assumption that is virtually impossible to validate in vivo. The aim of this study is therefore to apply the reservoir-wave paradigm to aortic pressure and flow waves obtained from 3D fluid-structure interaction simulations in a model of (a) a normal aorta, (b) aortic coarctation (narrowed descending aorta) and (c) stented coarctation (stiff segment in descending aorta). We found no unequivocal relation between the intra-aortic volume and the reservoir pressure for any of the simulated cases. When plotted in a pressure-volume diagram, hysteresis loops are found that are looped in a clockwise way indicating that the reservoir pressure is lower than the pressure associated with the change in volume. The reservoir-wave analysis leads to very high excess pressures, especially for the coarctation models, but to surprisingly little changes of the reservoir component despite the impediment of the buffer capacity of the aorta. In conclusion, with the observation that reservoir pressure is not related to the volume in the aortic reservoir in systole, an intrinsic assumption in the wave-reservoir concept is invalidated and, consequently, also the assumption that the excess pressure is the component of pressure that can be attributed to wave travel and reflection.

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Segers, P., Taelman, L., Degroote, J. et al. 1.4 The Aortic Reservoir-Wave as a Paradigm for Arterial Hemodynamics: Insights From 3D Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulations in a Model of Aortic Coarctation. Artery Res 8, 122 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artres.2014.09.053

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.artres.2014.09.053