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Table 1 Frailty phenotype (by Fried et al.’s criteria, 2001)

From: Vascular Function and Frailty in Community-Dwelling Older Individuals

  Male Female
Weight loss Loss of ≥ 10 lbs (4.5 kg) or ≥ 5% of body weight in the last year
Slowness (4.57 m) Height ≤ 173 cm: ≥ 7 s
Height > 173 cm: ≥ 6 s
Height ≤ 159 cm: ≥ 7 s
Height > 159 cm: ≥ 6 s
Handgrip strength (kg) BMI ≤ 24.0: ≤ 29 BMI ≤ 23.0: ≤ 17
  BMI 24.1–26.0: ≤ 30 BMI 23.1–26.0: ≤ 17.3
  BMI 26.1–28.0: ≤ 30 BMI 26.1–29.0: ≤ 18
  BMI > 28.0: ≤ 32 BM I > 29.0: ≤ 21
Physical activity (MLTA)  < 383 kcal/week
(about 2.5 h walk)
 < 273 kcal/week
(about 2 h walk)
Exhaustion A score of 2 or 3 on either question on the CES-D
How often did you feel this way in the last week?
(a) I felt everything I did was an effort
(b) I could not get going
0 = less than 1 day, 1 = 1–2 days, 2 = 3–4 days, 3 = more than 4 days
  1. BMI body mass index; CES-D center for epidemiologic studies depression scale; MLTA minnesota leisure time activity questionnaire